Vice President watching from a luxury box at Pittsburgh's since razed in reality Civic Arena. The VP's security detail gets raided, overpowered and held hostage so a disgruntled ex-CIA operative played by Powers Boothe can extort hundreds of millions by threatening to blow the arena at the end of regulation. Hardly a random matter of producers hurling a dart at a map, then-Penguins co-owner Howard Baldwin produced the film—from a story by his wife, team co-owner Karen Elise Baldwin.
In a favorable review from the New York Times , critic Stephen Holden gave tempered compliments to the film's "above-average pyrotechnics, a body count that steadily mounts, and plenty of hand-to-hand combat. Despite widespread distaste for the film among the press, neither it nor Van Damme were nominated for a Razzie Award for Worst Picture or Worst Actor.
The second question took longer to answer, but there were early clues that Kuo and Mulkey were on to something. The mice with Dravet Syndrome had disordered breathing.
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They tended to hypoventilate breathe too little for no apparent reason sometimes. Other times they would have long apneas, or pauses between breaths. And these mice didn't breathe more in response to high carbon dioxide levels in the air, the way humans and normal mice do. When Kuo zoomed in on the part of the brainstem that controls breathing, she saw that the inhibitory cells -- the stadium bouncers of the brainstem -- were definitely less active than they should have been.
This led the excitatory neurons to run wild, and constantly tell the part of the brain that generates the breathing rhythm to push faster. But shouldn't this lead to increased breathing, not stopping? There is definitely something wrong with the breathing circuit in the brainstem in these mice, but Mulkey and Kuo cannot pinpoint the exact problem.
What Is Sudden Death Syndrome, and Is Prevention Possible?
So they're still on the case. The next steps will be to look at mice that only express the Scn1a mutation in the brainstem or only in the cortex, and see if they also have problems. If mice with a mutation in the cortex but not the brainstem don't have SUDEP, that would argue against the 'seizure descending from cortex to brainstem' hypothesis.
The researchers also plan on looking at other parts of the breathing circuit to see whether other parts have gone haywire, too. Eventually, they hope to identify a key player that can be calmed -- or prodded -- to prevent the breathing system from breaking down, and ultimately save the lives of people with epilepsy. Materials provided by University of Connecticut. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.
Sudden Death Syndrome - ysaclibabal.tk
Science News. The next step was to actually look at the mice's brainstems and see if something was wrong. Story Source: Materials provided by University of Connecticut. Disordered breathing in a mouse model of Dravet syndrome.
Previous reports have documented and characterized these disturbances in patients with various neurological conditions and intense emotional states. We have compelling evidence to shift our attention from the hypothalamus, brainstem cardiovascular centers, and spinal autonomic outflows to the cortical and subcortical regions, such as the insula and amygdala, regarding the site of origin of cerebrogenic sudden death.
Researchers and clinicians can readily identify patients at risk of sudden death through detection of ECG signs and analysis of heart rate variability. The addition of acoustic stimulus or simple tests of cardiovascular reflexes such as passive postural change, the Valsalva maneuver, and the cold face test may be helpful.
Involvement of the right insula, advancing age, concomitant hypertensive and ischemic heart diseases, and the presence of intense emotional stress are the risk factors for cerebrogenic cardiovascular disturbances and probably for sudden death. Confirmation of a vulnerable period of sudden death in patients with different neurological conditions and intense emotional states awaits further studies. Finally, more work on the neurochemical mediators of cerebrogenic cardiovascular disturbances is needed before potentially effective pharmacological therapy can be tested in randomized clinical trials.
Reprints: Raymond T. All Rights Reserved. Download PDF Top of Article Abstract Clinical evidence of cerebrogenic cardiovascular and autonomic disturbances Experimental evidence implicating the insula in generating cerebrogenic cardiovascular and autonomic disturbances Recent clinical observations Recent experimental evidence Implications and future direction Article Information References.
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Citations View Metrics. Neurological Review. Raymond T. Clinical evidence of cerebrogenic cardiovascular and autonomic disturbances. Experimental evidence implicating the insula in generating cerebrogenic cardiovascular and autonomic disturbances. Recent clinical observations. Recent experimental evidence. Implications and future direction. Sign in to access your subscriptions Sign in to your personal account. Create a free personal account to download free article PDFs, sign up for alerts, and more.
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